Thursday, 2 July 2015

The archaeometric excavation

Last year, on November 28, Arc-Team joined the conference "Lo scavo archeometrcio: scienza e tecnologia applicate allo scavo archeologico" (en: "The archaeometrcic excavation: science and technology applied to the archaeological excavation"), which was held in Rovereto (Italy) at the Museo Civico.
During the meeting we gave a presentation titled "Professional archaeology. Innovations and best practice with free technology. Toward an Open Research." Today I uploaded on our server the slides, so that we can share this work (like always under Creative Commons Attribution - CC BY).
As usual the presentation has been done with impress.js through the Graphical User Interface Strut (both GPL licensed) and it is optimized for Firefox or Iceweasel (better visualized here).




Here is a little explanation regarding the single slides:

SLIDE 1
A fast presentation regarding Arc-Team.
SLIDE 2
An animation representing the importance of geocoding in archaeology (from space to site).

SLIDE 3
Differential GPS and Total Station: the main tools needed by archaeologists on the field (to georeference every single element of the archaeological record).

SLIDE 4
Some examples of geocoding in archaeology: everyday work, project in extreme conditions and missions abroad...

SLIDE 5
... survay and excavations

SLIDE 6
In survay projects the geocoding tolerance for archaeology is higher, so that we are testing alternative solutions to build a low-cost and open source GPS with centimetric accuracy, using the software RTKLIB (or its port in Android)

SLIDE 7
All the recorded data (in 2D and 3D) can be imported into an open source GIS.

SLIDE 8
For aerial archaeology it since 2008 we are working with open source DIY UAV, like the UAVP or the KKcopter (in the slide).

SLIDE 9
Our last UAV prototype and an example of 3D pointcloud form aerial pictures.

SLIDE 10
Since 2014 we are testing DIY camera (using the filter of Public Lab) for NDVI and NGB pictures in archaeological remote sensing.

SLIDE 11
Just removing the IR filter, a normal camera can be used for endoscopic prospections in low light conditions.

SLIDE 12
In the field of geophysical prospections we use a DIY  machine for Electrical Resistivity Imaging. The data can be visualized in a GIS (e.g. GRASS GIS in the slide), using the east and north and the resistivity values.

SLIDE 13
Some geoarchaeological analyses can be performed directly on the field, like the settlement test (using the soil triangle) for the texture or the lithologic recognition for the skeleton.

SLIDE 14
Also some basic analytical chemistry can help during the excavation (giving indications on the ancient use of the soil), to verify the presence/absence of phosphates or of organic remains.

SLIDE 15
Other preliminary laboratory (flotation and sieving) analyses can prepare the samples for further investigation. Also in this case we use a DIY machine.

SLIDE 16
Colorimetry can be performed in many ways. Currently we are testing different options, like the open source spectrometer of Public Lab.

SLIDE 17
For some laboratory geoarchaeological analysis (e.g. microscopic morphology) we use normal optic microscopes, while for more advanced studies we externalize the service (e.g. SEM or energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy)

SLIDE 18
Currently we are testing the potentialities of the FLOSS MorphoJ to speed up the process in carpological remains recognition

SLIDE 19
To document archaeozoological remains in the field, we use the standard digital documentation techniques (in 2 and 3D), with FLOSS (e.g. bidimensional photomapping with the Aramus method or 3D recording through SfM and MVSR)

SLIDE 20
In the evolutionary anthropology field we developed a new technique (anatomical deformation) thanks to the FLOSS Blender

SLIDE 21
The same software (Blender) is used in the process of archaeological forensic facial reconstruction

SLIDE 22
Open source GIS (e.g. GRASS) are the main software we use to process and manage the recorded data

SLIDE 23
Thanks to open source UAV and Blender we experimented new ways to disclose archaeological data in a four-dimensional way (x,y,z,t)



A more detailed explanation of the entire presentation will come soon with the related article. For the topics which were already discussed in AOTR, I suggest to read the related post (see the above bibliography). For the latest experiment (e.g. near infrared, NDVI and NGB; Electrical Resistivity Imaging; Sedimentation test; litologic recognition on the field; flotation and sieving; colorimetry; microscopic morphology; MorphoJ;), we will try to write something as soon as possible.

Bibliography

Lo scavo archeologico professionale, innovazioni e best practice mediante metodologie aperte e Open research (here on Research Gate and here in Academia)

Webography (from ATOR):

3D and 4D GIS

SfM and MVSR

Aerial 3D documentation

Archaeological endoscopy

Geoarchaeology

Archaeobothany

Evolutionary anthropology
Anatomical Deformation Technique (ADT): validation; ADT Paranthropus boisei; ADT Homo rodhesiensis;

Archaeoanthropology
Archaeological Forensic Facial Reconstruction (AFFR); Digital AFFR: technique validation; AFFR: state of the arts; AFFR: poster;

Archaeological dissemination
Caldonazzo Castle 4D (case of study);
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