Tuesday 17 June 2014

Revealed the face of St. Anthony in 3D

The final image of St. Anthony, see below how to observe the 3D file in realtime

Dear friends who follow this site,

After days devoting myself to show the face of St. Anthony I decided to create a little different post.

TV story on Rome Reports (in English)

TV story on Buogiorno Regione Veneto (in Italian)

 TV story on Fantastico (in Portuguese), one ot the most important TV shows on Brazil (Globo TV). Link: http://g1.globo.com/fantastico/noticia/2014/06/designer-brasileiro-reconstroi-face-sem-saber-que-era-de-santo-antonio.html

  See the bust of Saint Anthony in realtime 3D. Use the mouse wheel (+- zoom) and the left mouse button to orbit. Link: https://skfb.ly/AssG

Initially I transcribe the presentation I made in Italy about the process of reconstruction and Print bust "del Santo" (The Saint), then I will share some links and videos stories presented on websites and TVs from Brazil, Italy and other countries (some examples above).

Centro Culturale Altinate | San Gaetano (auditorium) - Photo: Il Mattino di Padova
The presentation was made in Italian, in Padua, June 10 20:45 h at the Centro Culturale Altinate | San Gaetano (auditorium). The images represent the slides and text, obviously my words.

 The Presentation

Thanks to Dr. Paulo Miamoto for the translation to English and Luca Bezzi and Emma Varotto for the translation to Italian.
Ladies and gentlemen,

First of all, thank you for the attendance of this event. I'm very excited because it is the first time I participate in a presentation outside my country. I apologize for my Italian, which is not very good, not as good as that of my great-grandparents left here, more precisely Cremona, and went to southern Brazil in the late nineteenth century. I hope to honor them today.

I will briefly explain the process of the facial reconstruction, also referred to as approximation, of St. Anthony of Padua, this such notorious person, not only to the Catholic Church, but to History.

My job in this project was to digitally reconstruct the face of the Saint. Without knowing the identity of the individual, I received the skull to be rebuilt scanned in 3D, with the information that it was a male of European ancestry, aged 30-40 years. With these data initially started work cleaning and aligning the point clouds skull in Italian program MeshLab. 

Then I converted this cloud of points in a three-dimensional mesh putting it on a scale compatible with 3D printing.

Then I imported the skull in Blender software, in which I positioned it at the Frankfurt plane, an approximate position of a living person's head when standing.

Then, using research data for soft tissue depth, collected ​​in living European men aged 29-39 years and average BMI, digital pegs were positioned on the surface of the 3D skull model, according De Greef and collaborator's study. (2006.)

Using the reference of depth markers and projections from the skull I drew an outline of the individual's face in profile.

For a more consistent anatomical basis, the larger muscles were adapted from a template created in partnership with the OFLAB at USP, the Laboratory of Forensic Anthropology and Odontology, University of São Paulo.

This template is a file of a facial reconstruction that was made from from scratch, which later started to be used it as a base for this type of job. Through its deformation, it is possible to adapt it to any individual's 3D skull, regardless of sex or age.

So, using this template, the skin was deformed until it fit the references of depth markers and projections extracted directly from the skull.

During this process I counted with the aid of Dr. Paulo Eduardo Miamoto Dias, PhD in Forensic Dentistry.

Image with hight resolution available at Wikimedia Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sant%27Antonio_-_Saint_Anthony_-_v._2.0.jpg

As soon as the skin was adapted, Blender's sculpt mode was used to furrow its surface and evidentiate expression lines. I changed the settings of the template for the hair and beard and adjusted them to individual's anthropological profile. Then I sent images of it to the staff of Arc-Team and the Museum of Anthropology, University of Padua images reconstruction in two versions: with and without hair and beard.

Once the material was received and analyzed, the Italians disclosed the information about the identity of the individual. It was St. Anthony of Padua. I confess that it took me a while to realize who they were talking about. Obviously I was quite perplexed and greatly honored to know I was working on the reconstruction of such an important and notorious face. St. Anthony is the patron of the city that I live in Brazil (Sinop-MT). The hospital I was born in another city (Chapecó-SC) in southern Brazil is named after him. The name of my grandfather is Antonio Pagliari because of the saint and, even the name of the creator of the software used to reconstruct it, Blender 3D, is Antonius Roosendaal, in honor of the saint. Just to mention some examples.

Together with the identity of the famous individual, additional information was also disclosed, regarding his clothes and other relevant health data, as gathered by the Center for Studies Antonianos.

It was told that the saint would have had a stout appearance, due to a hydropsy condition near his death. As I did not have a survey depth of tissue taken in individuals with the same condition, I used data from the De Greef table, but for people with high BMI, in order to simulate this corpulence.

After these adjustments the facial structure, the clothing was modeled, the texture of the skin was set using as reference photographs taken from a 28 year-old man of European ancestry, and finally the hair, eyebrows and beard were set.

Here we can see the final image, approved by the Centro Studi Antoniani.

The 3D model was sent to the Information Technology Center Renato Archer (CTI Campinas), an institution linked to the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation in Brazil. 

A few adjustments so that the mesh could be printed in 3D were necessary. These adjustments consisted in putting thickness to the bust, adjusting the hair texture and then applying a slightly rugged surface to simulate the volume of the facial hair.

3D model consisted of printing more than 1500 layers one over the other, until the bust was completed. Each layer has the thickness of a paper sheet.

Then it was removed from the powder repository with the aid of a vacuum cleaner. The piece went into an oven where it was heated to 65 ° for a few minutes. Then it was taken for the application of resin to another container. After a few hours drying the piece was finished and ready for transport.

Avail here to thank Dr. Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva and developers Paulo Amorim and Thiago Franco de Moraes, all them from CTI's Division for 3D Technologies, which enabled us to do this 3D impression through a research partnership that we have for over a year.

The first tests of color printing that were made had some color problems, getting a darker part of the left side of the face.

To resolve this problem of color, we decided to get in touch with a photographer in my city, the painter Mari Bueno.

Mari accepted the challenge to retouch the piece, with complete freedom of style. The result was a more homogeneous surface with colors and a nice shine in the eyes of The Saint. With this step, we completed work on the presentation of the face.

Thanks everyone for coming to the museum and also for the invitation to come here and explain about the processes involving the facial reconstruction of this important man for the church and for the millions of people who worship him. This reconstruction of the face of a holy man, performed ​​with scientific methods, harmonically placed Science itself and religion side by side. Everything we did was based on appreciation for History, observation of technical protocols and respect for the church. Fortunately we were successful and here we have the result of months of work materialized in a bust, bearing not only technology, but also of faith passed down from generation to generation, over almost eight hundred years, since the life of St. Anthony left his body and entered ​​history.

Thank you very much!

On the Media

See below some links to videos and texts on the facial reconstruction of St. Anthony published on websites of various languages​​.

[Video - in Portuguese] Boletim | Aparecida é Notícia – O rosto de Santo Antônio é recriado com alta tecnologia: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqIdRStivAQ

Video - in Portuguese] Século News 13/06/2014 – Aparência Santo Antonio: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gj1PDN6sBvM

Video - in Portuguese] Rede Globo | Fantástico – Designer brasileiro reconstrói face de Santo Antônio : http://g1.globo.com/fantastico/noticia/2014/06/designer-brasileiro-reconstroi-face-sem-saber-que-era-de-santo-antonio.html

Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (
in Portuguese): “Novo” rosto de Santo Antônio é visto por brasileiros e italianos: http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/355066/Novo_rosto_de_Santo_Antonio_e_visto_por_brasileiros_e_italianos.html

O Mensageiro de Santo Antônio – “Novo rosto” de Santo Antônio é apresentado em Pádua (
in Portuguese): http://omensageiro.org.br/novo-rosto-de-santo-antonio-e-apresentado-em-padua/

Rede Século 21 – Reconstrução da face de Santo Antônio será entregue na Itália (
in Portuguese): https://www.rs21.com.br/?p=104435

Estadão – Especialistas italianos e brasileiros reconstruem rosto de Santo Antônio (
in Portuguese): http://ciencia.estadao.com.br/noticias/geral,especialistas-italianos-e-brasileiros-reconstroem-rosto-de-santo-antonio,1510193

Correio Popular – Centro cria imagem de Santo Antônio com base na ossada (
in Portuguese): http://correio.rac.com.br/_conteudo/2014/06/capa/campinas_e_rmc/183009-centro-cria-imagem-de-santo-antonio-com-base-na-ossada.html

Msn Notícias – Designer brasileiro reconstrói verdadeiro rosto de Santo Antônio (
in Portuguese): http://noticias.br.msn.com/brasil/story.aspx?cp-documentid=263925590

EFE - Designer brasileiro reconstrói verdadeiro rosto de Santo Antônio (in Portuguese): http://www.efe.com/efe/noticias/brasil/tecnologia/designer-brasileiro-reconstroi-verdadeiro-rosto-santo-antonio/3/2018/2342314

Só Notícia Boa – Igreja divulga rosto verdadeiro de Santo Antonio: 3D (in Portuguese and LIBRAS): http://sonoticiaboa.band.uol.com.br/noticia.php?i=4971

A12 Notícias – Rosto de Santo Antônio é reconstituído na Itália (
in Portuguese): http://www.a12.com/noticias/detalhes/rosto-de-santo-antonio-e-reconstruido-na-italia

Terra Notícias – Designer brasileiro reconstrói verdadeiro rosto de Santo Antônio (
in Portuguese): http://noticias.terra.com.br/ciencia/designer-brasileiro-reconstroi-verdadeiro-rosto-de-santo-antonio,b740d3b707e86410VgnCLD200000b2bf46d0RCRD.html

[Video - in English] Rome Reports – What did St. Anthony of Padua look like? 3D Technology gives us a glimpse: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SaR88gApdVI

CNA Catholic News Agency (
in English)- Forensic experts attempt to reconstruct face of St. Anthony: http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/forensic-experts-attempt-to-reconstruct-face-of-st-anthony-35312/
[Video - in Italian] NewsTV200 –  Svelato il volto di Sant’Antonio di Padova grazie allo studio di alcuni ricercatori: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GqCZJMfMwIE

Video - in Italian] Antenatre – Dopo Otto Secoli il Volto di S. Antonio: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecEKlEoyb1I

Video - in Italian] Tg3 RAI – Qual era il volto di Sant’Antonio?: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uT-aLfCQVlY

Video - in Italian] TgPadova Telenuovo – Ecco il volto del Santo: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irF-zCt0Oy8

Video - in Italian] Tg1 RAI - Sant’Antonio in 3D : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4ohn8Mb19M

Video - in Italian] Reteveneta – Giugno: Il Volto del Santo Emoziona i Fedeli: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgMw3WDIGEk

Video - in Italian] Antenatre – In preghiera davanti al volto di Antonio: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wvz5f_HXkZ4

Il Mattino de Pádua (
in Italian) – Svelato il volto del Santo: ecco Antonio in 3D: http://mattinopadova.gelocal.it/cronaca/2014/06/10/news/svelato-il-volto-del-santo-ecco-antonio-in-3d-1.9399136

Corriere del Veneto Il volto di Sant’Antonio (
in Italian): http://corrieredelveneto.corriere.it/veneto/notizie/cultura_e_tempolibero/2014/11-giugno-2014/volto-sant-antonio-223374344573.shtml

Il Mattino (photo gallery): http://mattinopadova.gelocal.it/foto-e-video/2014/06/11/fotogalleria/svelato-il-volto-del-santo-ecco-antonio-in-3d-1.9402960

Santantonnio.org (Mesaggero di Santo Antonio – Basilica del Santo) Il Volto di Antonio (
in Italian with press kit): http://www.santantonio.org/portale/pagina.asp?id=137

Trentino Corriere Alpi – Il volto di S.Antonio ricostruito a Cles (
in Italian): http://trentinocorrierealpi.gelocal.it/cronaca/2014/06/12/news/il-volto-di-s-antonio-ricostruito-a-cles-1.9404829

PadovaOggi – Sant’Antonio da Padova, svelato il volto del frate ricostruito in 3D (
in Italian): http://www.padovaoggi.it/cronaca/sant-antonio-padova-volto-ricostruito-3d.html

La Difesa del Popolo – Ecco il vero volto di sant’Antonio (
in Italian): http://www.difesapopolo.it/Rubriche/Gli-speciali/I-giorni-del-Santo/Ecco-il-vero-volto-di-sant-Antonio

Padovando Magazine – Il volto del Santo (
in Italian): http://www.padovando.com/mostre/il-volto-del-santo/

Ricostruito dalla scienza il volto di sant’Antonio (
in Italian) – http://www.lavitadelpopolo.it/Chiesa/Ricostruito-dalla-scienza-il-volto-di-sant-Antonio

Provincia Italiana di S. Antonio di Padova – il volto di sant’Antonio di Padova – nuova ricostruzione scientifica (
in Italian): http://www.francescaninorditalia.net/eventi/233-il-volto-di-sant-antonio-di-padova-nuova-ricostruzione-scientifica
il BO, il giornale dell’Università degli studi di Padova – Sant’Antonio senza trucco (in Italian): http://www.unipd.it/ilbo/content/santantonio-senza-trucco-svelato-il-suo-vero-volto

lffl linux freedom – Linux viene utilizzato per ricostruire il volto in 3D di Sant’Antonio (
in Italian): http://www.lffl.org/2014/06/sant-antonio-volto-3d-software-open-linux.html

[Video - in Spanish] GloriaTV – Reconstruido el rostro de Santo Antonio: http://gloria.tv/?media=623640

Televisa – Reconstruyen el verdadero rostro de San Antonio (
in Spanish): http://noticieros.televisa.com/mundo/1406/reconstruyen-verdadero-rostro-san-antonio/

Telesur – Revelan verdadero rostro de San Antonio  (
in Spanish): http://www.telesurtv.net/articulos/2014/06/11/revelan-verdadero-rostro-de-san-antonio-8301.html

Aleteia – Science : le vrai visage de saint Antoine de Padoue reconstitué en 3D (in French): http://www.aleteia.org/fr/science/article/science-le-vrai-visage-de-saint-antoine-de-padoue-reconstitue-en-3d-5315691322277888

Radio Notre Dame - 13 juin : le vrai visage de Saint Antoine de Padoue (in French): http://radionotredame.net/2014/vie-de-leglise/13-juin-le-vrai-visage-de-saint-antoine-de-padoue-en-3d-27471/

Fait Religieux - Le visage de Saint-Antoine de Padoue reconstitué...en 3D ! (
in French): http://www.fait-religieux.com/la-photo-du-jour-1/2014/06/13/le-visage-de-saint-antoine-de-padoue-reconstitue...en-3d-

Gesicht des Heiligen Antonius von Padua rekonstruiert (in Germany): http://www.katholisches.info/2014/06/04/gesicht-des-heiligen-antonius-von-padua-rekonstruiert/


L. Bezzi (Arc-Team), C. Moraes (Arc-Team), N. Carrara (Museo Antropologico dell'Università di Padova), Il volto del Santo. La ricostruzione Facciale Forense di Sant'Antonio di Padova (document in Academia; document in ResearchGate)
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